The Chinese Language Movement in Malaysia, 1952-1967: Language, Ethnicity and Nation-Building in a Plural Society

Author: Tan Yao Sua & Teoh Hooi See
Format: Paperback 104 pp.
Subjects: Education, Ethnic Studies, History & Biography
ISBN: 9789670960043
Publisher: SIRD
Price: RM20.00
 
The Chinese language movement in Malaysia was launched by the Chinese educationists to demand for the recognition of Chinese as an official language and to legitimise the status of Chinese education in the national educational system. In the process, the official language issue evolved into an ethnic issue that strained ethnic relations between the Chinese and the Malays with severe political implications that threatened to impede the nation-building process. The Chinese language movement was launched in 1952 as a response to the British attempt to establish bilingual national primary schools (commonly known as national schools) teaching in English and Malay to replace the vernacular primary schools that had existed since the colonial period. It picked up pace when the Chinese educationists managed to garner political support for their demand. But the Chinese educationists decided to temporarily halt the movement prior to the election of an interim local government following political promises to safeguard the development of Chinese education. Unfortunately, subsequent developments did not live up to their expectations, especially the forced conversion of the Chinese secondary schools to national-medium secondary schools, leading to the revival of the movement which reached new heights prior to the enactment of the National Language Act in 1967. But the movement was strongly contested by the Malay nationalists affiliated to a language action front. Also, there was a lack of Chinese political support from within the coalition government. All this brought to an end a language movement that was intended to legitimise the position of Chinese education in the national educational system.
 
This work examines the politics of language in Malaysia during a crucial period when the nation-building processwas in its formative stages. It focuses on the contrasting linguistic assertions of the Chinese educationists and the Malay nationalists as well as the attempt by the government to resolve these assertions through an accommodative approach. As it shows, language and ethnicity are inextricably intertwined as far as the nation-building process in plural societies is concerned. Language and ethnicity remain a relevant issue in contemporary Malaysia, especially when it involves the vernacular primary school system which has evoked intense ethnic contestation over its actual functional role in the nation-building process.
 
 
About the author
Dr. Tan Yao Sua is Senior Lecturer and Research Fellow at the Centre for Policy Research and International Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. His main research interests include educational policy analysis, minority education, bilingual education, sociology of education and Malaysian Chinese Studies.
 
Dr. Teoh Hooi See is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Chinese Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya. Her main research interests are in the areas of Malaysian Chinese Studies and Asian Literature.

 

Posted in Education, Ethnic Studies, History

Culture, Identity & Foodways of the Terengganu Chinese

Author: Kamarudin Ngah & Tan Yao Sua
Format: Paperback 130 PP.
Subject: Arts & Culture, Ethnic Studies
ISBN: 9789670630830
Publisher: SIRD
Published: 2015
Price: RM24.00
 
The Chinese minority in Terengganu, Malaysia, are struggling to maintain their Sinic culture, identity and community in the face of socio-political changes and Islamisation since the early 1970s. They are also facing problems due to population attrition from an outflow of the younger generation to larger cities in Malaysia for jobs and further education. The acculturated Terengganu Peranakan Chinese, descendants of the earliest settlers who arrived at least two centuries ago, face additional inter-generational tensions and challenges. 
 
This book is based on extensive interviews and fieldwork and includes: an overview of the role of the Kuala Terengganu Chinese associations in promoting traditional Chinese culture and identity; a study of the Peranakan Chinese in Tirok, to further examine issues of identity maintenance and identity shift; and a comparison between the foodways of the Tirok Peranakan Chinese with a similar rural Peranakan community in the neighbouring state of Kelantan to demonstrate the community’s continual negotiation of Sino–Malay identity. 
 
Dr Tan Yao Sua is a senior lecturer and research fellow at the Centre for Policy Research and International Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. His main research interests include Malaysian Chinese studies, educational policy analysis, minority education, bilingual education and the sociology of education.
 
Dr Kamarudin Ngah is a Professor at the College of Law, Government and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah. His main research interests are in the areas of community development, project planning and local government. 
Posted in Ethnic Studies

Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia: Harmoni dan Konflik

Author: Syed Husin Ali
Format: Paperback, 230 pages
Subject: Ethnic Studies
ISBN: 9789670630779
Publisher: SIRD
Published: 2014
Price: RM32.00

Buku ini adalah terjemahan daripada buku Ethnic Relations in Malaysia: Harmony and Conflict (New Edition), diterbit pada 2014 oleh Strategic Information and Research Development Centre

 
Pada ketika Malaysia di ambang ombak perubahan politik, ahli akademik yang kini merupakan aktivis politik, Dr Syed Husin Ali, menjejaki bagaimana etnisiti telah dimanipulasi, sejak Merdeka, oleh ahli politik Malaysia untuk kepentingan mereka sendiri sehingga menjejaskan masyarakat. 
 
Dalam artikel yang mencakupi lebih daripada tiga dekad ini, yang dikumpulkan buat kali pertamanya dalam buku ini, beliau membedah asal-usul, falasi dan sifat yang merosakkan politik etnik dan mengkaji isu kelas vs etnik atau kaum di Malaysia. Kini, sudah tiba masanya, sebagaimana dihujahkan oleh penulis, untuk menamatkan politik perkauman atau etnik. 
 
Dalam edisi baru ini, penulis telah mengemaskini buku ini dari segi fakta dan peristiwa, dan memasukkan dua lagi artikel.

 

Posted in Ethnic Studies

Melayu Singapura: Sebagai Kaum Minoriti dan Muslim

Author: Hussin Mutalib
Format: Paperback 324 pp.
Subject: Ethnic Studies, Social Studies
ISBN: 9789670630793
Publisher: SIRD & NUS Press
Published: 2015
Price: RM38.00
 

Orang Melayu merupakan antara tiga kaum terbesar di Republik ini. Buku ini mengetengahkan permasalahan dan analisis menyeluruh mengenai ‘cerita orang Melayu Singapura’. Dibentang dan dibahaskan secara menyakinkan, penulis menganalisis kesemua aspek penting dan mencabar yang dilalui masyarakat Melayu – merangkumi isu-isu politik, pendidikan, ekonomi, sosial, agama dan kepimpinan. Buku ini adalah sumbangan amat penting dalam usaha kita memahami orang Islam Singapura dan liku-liku hidup yang mereka alami sebagai rakyat sebuah negeri global. Buku ini amat berguna kepada para pengkaji dan penyelidik serta golongan pelajar dan pembaca umum yang berminat dalam bidang-bidang Pengajian Singapura, Pengajian Asia Tenggara, Permasalahan Kaum Minoriti, Dunia Melayu dan Islam di Asia. 

Tentang Penulis

Hussin Mutalib, Ph.D., telah mengajar di Jabatan Sains Politik Universiti Nasional Singapura (NUS) selama lebih 30 tahun. Beliau banyak mengkaji dan menerbitkan buku dan artikel mengenai isu-isu politik dan kemasyarakatan – di Singapura, Asia Tenggara, Timur Tengah dan Dunia Islam amnya. Profesor Hussin juga pernah diundang sebagai Fulbright Fellow/Profesor Pelawat di universiti-universiti terulung dunia seperti Universiti Harvard, Universiti Oxford, Universiti California (Berkeley), London School of Economics and Political Science, Universiti Hawaii, Universiti Kaherah, dan Universiti Jordan.

 
 
 
Posted in Ethnic Studies, Malay Books, Social Studies

Ethnic Relations in Malaysia: Harmony & Conflict (New edition)

Author: Syed Husin Ali
Format: Paperback, 213 pages
Subject: Ethnic Studies
ISBN: 9789670630458
Publisher: SIRD
Published: 2014
Price: RM32.00

With Malaysia in the throes of sweeping political change, academic turned political activist Dr Syed Husin Ali traces how ethnicity has been manipulated, since Independence, by Malaysian politicians for their own gain to the detriment of the masses.

In articles spanning more than three decades, collected for the first time here, he dissects the origins, fallacies and destructive nature of ethnic politics in Malaysia and examines the issue of class versus ethnicity or race. It is time, he argues, for an end to race or ethnic-based politics. In this new edition, the author has updated the book in terms of facts and events, and included two more articles.

Posted in English Books, Ethnic Studies

The Peaceful People: The Penan and their Fight for the Forest

Author: Paul Malone
Format: Paperback, 285 pages
Subjects: Ethnic Studies, Social Studies
ISBN: 9789670630366
Publisher: SIRD
Published: 2014
Price: RM48.00

The Peaceful People is the story of the Penan, the jungle nomads of Sarawak, who for decades have fought for possession and preservation of their traditional forest lands. Drawing on extensive first-hand interviews, as well as the diaries and journals of explorers, botanists and colonial administrators, and the observations of missionaries, the book provides the most comprehensive account of the dynamics of Penan society to date. Written in a compelling and accessible style, the narrative tells the shocking history of the Penan, exposing massacres and murders, while recounting the nomads’ uniquely shy and peaceful way of life. In particular, the analysis focuses on the Penan’s consistently non-violent modern-day protests against rampant logging which attracted world attention in the 1980s and 1990s. The Peaceful People is essential reading for those interested in the history and culture of Borneo, the politics of logging and development, and the lives of indigenous peoples who seek new ways to survive in a hostile world.

About the author

Paul Malone is an Australian journalist with thirty years’ experience, having worked for The Sydney Morning Herald, The Age, The Australian Financial Review and The Canberra Times. He currently writes a weekly column for The Canberra Times. He first visited Borneo in 1974, and started work on this book in 2007 when he wrote a series of articles on Eastern Penan’s logging road blockades.

Posted in English Books, Ethnic Studies, Social Studies

Budaya Makanan Cina Peranakan Terengganu dan Kelantan: Penyelarasan Identiti dan Kontradiksi Dalaman

Authors: Kamarudin Ngah, Mohd Shah Imran Lim Abdullah and Tan Yao Sua
Format: Paperback, 107 pages
Subjects: Arts & Culture, Ethnic Studies, Social Studies
ISBN: 9789670630267
Publisher: SIRD
Published: 2014
Price: RM20.00

 

Monograf ini meninjau budaya makanan dua kumpulan Cina Peranakan yang menetap di pantai timur Semenanjung Malaysia, iaitu Cina Peranakan Tirok di negeri Terengganu dan Cina Peranakan Pasir Parit di negeri Kelantan.

Tumpuan utamanya adalah terhadap dua jenis makanan yang memperlihatkan kedinamikan kedua-dua kumpulan Cina Peranakan ini menyelaraskan identiti mereka, iaitu identiti Melayu yang dipupuk menerusi proses akulturasi dan identiti asal yang diwarisi daripada generasi awal.

Dua jenis makanan tersebut ialah makanan harian dan makanan upacara penyembahan nenek moyang. Dari segi makanan harian, kedua-dua kumpulan Cina Peranakan ini amat dipengaruhi oleh budaya makanan penduduk Melayu tempatan. Dengan kata lain, makanan harian mereka menonjolkan proses lokalisasi makanan yang cukup ketara.

Walau bagaimanapun, makanan harian yang disediakan oleh mereka itu turut terdiri daripada makanan hibrid yang mengadunkan budaya makanan yang berbeza. Biarpun makanan hibrid ini hanya disediakan sekali sekala, ia tetap merupakan satu kontradiksi dalaman kepada budaya makanan harian mereka, lebih-lebih lagi makanan hibrid tersebut rata-rata membabitkan penggunaan bahan masakan yang istimewa kepada orang Cina tetapi dilarang oleh agama Islam.

Sementara itu, makanan upacara penyembahan nenek moyang yang disediakan oleh mereka itu bertujuan untuk memperkukuh ikatan primordial mereka dan oleh itu, makanan tersebut terdiri daripada makanan yang sama ada memperlihatkan identiti makanan Cina yang ketara atau simbolisme makanan yang dapat mendukung pengekalan dan kesinambungan salasilah keturunan dan persanakan keluarga mereka.

Namun, terdapat juga kontradiksi dalaman dari segi penyediaan makanan ini kerana sesetengah makanan yang disediakan oleh mereka itu terdiri daripada makanan tempatan dan makanan hibrid yang menyebabkan penghakisan identiti primordial mereka. Pendek kata, kedua-dua jenis makanan ini menonjolkan kekompleksitian Cina Peranakan Tirok dan Pasir Parit menyelaraskan identiti mereka menerusi budaya makanan mereka yang bersifat silang budaya itu.

 
Posted in Arts & Culture, Ethnic Studies, Malay Books, Social Studies

Gerakan Pendidikan Cina Di Malaysia: Satu Kajian Tentang Perjuangan Dong Jiao Zong (1970-2002)

Author: Cheong Yuen Keong
Format: Paperback, 438 pages
ISBN: 9789675832710
Publisher: SIRD
Published: 2013
Price: RM38.00
 
Buku ini meninjau tentang Gerakan Pendidikan Cina di Malaysia Khususnya menumpu kepada perjuangan Dong Jiao Zong dari tahun 1970 hingga 202. Tempoh masa ini dipilih atas sebab kerajaan mula melaksanakan Dasar Pelajaran Kebangsaan yang menghala kepada penggunaan bahasa kebangsaan sebagai bahasa pengantar tunggal di semua institusi pendidikan dengan spenuhnya pada tahun 1970, manakala tahun 2002 dipilih sebagai tarikh berhenti atas sebab terdapat perubahan menonjol dalam pelaksanaan dasar tersebut apabila bahasa Inggeris mula digunakan sebagai bahasa pengantar untuk mengajar mata pelajaran Sains dan Matematik mulai tahun 2003.

Sememangnya tempoh masa ini merupakan jangka waktu pendidikan Cina dilanda banyak krisis dan dilemma lantaran kesungguhan kerajaan untuk merealisasikan ‘matlamat akhir’ Laporan Razak 1956 yang mencadangkan penggunaan bahasa kebangsaan sebagai bahasa pengantar tunggal di semua institusi pendidikan. Pelaksanaan kerajaan tersebut dianggap sebagai suatu tindakan untuk menyekat perkembangan pendidikan Cina dan menghakis identity sekolah Cina oleh Dong Jiao Zong. Dalam buku ini, permasalahan pencetusan Gerakan Pendidikan Cina diteliti mengikut kerangka konflik etnik, iaitu antara pembentukan bangsa-negara dan pengekalan identity etnik, serta pembalahan persepsi tentang konsep pluralistic dalam bidang pendidikan dan bahasa, iaitu antara pemupukan system persekolahan satu aliran dengan pelbagai aliran.

Dari segi lain, perjuangan Dong Jiao Zong ditinjau dari kerangka perjuangan kumpulan kepentingan yang berjaya mencetuskan gerakan social yang berterusan dan berpengaruh. Hasil penyelidikan menunjukkan bahawa perjuangan Gerakan Pendidikan Cina yang diterajui Dong Jiao Zong ini membawa impak dan pengaruh yang kuat kepada negara amnya dan masyarakat Cina khususnya. Keupanyaan Gerakan Pendidikan Cina mempengaruhi pola pengundian dan pendirian masyarakat Cina menyebabkan parti-parti politik memandang serius tentang tuntutannya dan kerajaan turut menyediakan ruang kompromi kepada perkembangan sekolah Cina.

 
Posted in Education, Ethnic Studies, Malay Books

Educational Issues in Multiethnic Malaysia

Authors: R. Santhiram and Tan Yao Sua
Format: Paperback, 230 pages
Subjects: Education, Ethnic Studies
ISBN: 9789670630076
Publisher: SIRD
Published: 2013
Price: RM30.00

 

Education in multiethnic societies is a subject of considerable debates in almost all parts of the world. These debates have invoked strongly-felt positions between competing ethnic groups over a host of issues that have a profound impact on the nation building process.

Apart from deep-seated issues arising from contrasting internal demands over educational rights and equality, emerging issues arising from external influences such as the global spread of English as a result of globalisation have also impacted the nation building process of multiethnic societies.

It is against this context that educational issues in multiethnic societies merit our attention. In the case of Malaysia, discourses over these issues are particularly intense and hotly contested by the different ethnic groups.

This is primarily because of the extreme difficulties in mediating these complicated issues which are impinged by competing socio-cultural, economic and political interests.

This book explores the contested terrains of education in multiethnic Malaysia. It comprises seven chapters that cover three crucial areas of educational provisions and delivery, namely education of ethnic minorities, education and national integration, and educational language policy.

These three crucial areas are often the prime concerns of policy makers in multiethnic societies who have to tread a thin line in resolving these issues which are underpinned by intense coterminous interests and inter-ethnic competition, and having the potential to generate conflicts, contestation and power struggle.

As far as the Malaysian policy makers are concerned, their efforts in resolving these issues have not been overly successful. It is most unfortunate that their policy decisions are at times influenced by competing political and ethnic interests rather than guided by sound theoretical underpinnings that could put the educational development of the country on a stronger platform and a clearer trajectory.

 
Posted in Education, English Books, Ethnic Studies

Masyarakat Penan dan Impian Pembangunan: Satu Himpunan Naratif Keterpinggiran dan Jatidiri

Editors: Zawawi Ibrahim and NoorShah M.S.
Format: Paperback, 187 pages
Subject: Ethnic Studies
ISBN: 9789675832529
Publisher: SIRD
Published: 2012
Price: RM25.00
 
Buku ini merupakan luahan sanubari dan pancaran perspektif masyarakat Penan tentang impian pembangunan mereka, dipetik dari pelbagai lapisan hidup warga pribumi yang terpinggir dalam konteks negara-bangsa Malaysia. Himpunan naratif keterpinggiran dan jatidiri yang terkandung di dalam naskah ini mengungkapkan konsep pembangunan alternative dan ilmu pembangunan mampan kaum Penan yang berpaksikan pengalaman harian mereka, sebagai kaum Penan. Satu kritikan terhadap penjajahan pembangunan ‘ala pembalakan’ yang ganas melanda dan memusnahkan landskap ekologi dan ‘komunitas’ adat mereka.
 
Posted in Ethnic Studies, Malay Books

The Education of Ethnic Minorities: The Case of the Malaysian Chinese

Authors: R. Santhiram & Tan Yao Sua
Format: Paperback 185 pp.
Subjects: Education, Ethnic Studies, Malaysia
ISBN: 9789675832062
Publisher: SIRD
Published: 2010
Price: RM25.00
 
This is a case study of the dilemmas of minority education in plural societies, focusing on the complex phenomenon of the education of the Malaysian Chinese. The Malaysian education system accommodates minority interests by allowing for Tamil and Chinese-medium primary schools. But since Malay is the main medium of instruction, particularly at the secondary and tertiary levels, most minority students undergo a transitional bilingual education.

The authors review the background to this segmented system as well as relevant literature on minority education. Both colonial era and post-independence language and education policies have been contested and divisive. While nation-building remains a key concern, education and language policies often reflect majority–minority relations, rather than being focused purely on pedagogic goals—or interethnic socialization and integration.

The Chinese educationists have been a driving force in these developments. But their vision of a complete system of Chinese-medium education, as this book shows, is not fully supported by Chinese parents. Furthermore, the flawed implementation of transitional bilingual education has resulted in, among other problems, linguistic dysfunctionality. A substantial number of Chinese students have such a poor grasp of Malay that they drop out of secondary school, while overall Chinese-language competency also deteriorates after primary school.

This objective, scholarly analysis should be read by educationists, scholars, journalists, policy-makers, and parents who seek to learn more about the history, context, and longer-term implications of the education of the Chinese in multiethnic Malaysia.

Posted in Education, Ethnic Studies

Malaysian Indians: Looking Forward

Authors: Jayanath Appudurai and G. A. David Dass
Format: Paperback, 51 pages
Subject: Ethnic Studies
ISBN: 9789833782567
Publisher: SIRD
Published: 2008
Price: RM8.00
 

What is the truth about the status of the real Malaysian Indian community today? Is it true that despite its considerable sacrifice and contribution to the development of the country, it has become a marginalised community?

The aim of this publication are to provide a perspective on the present reality of the Malaysian Indians community, and to postulate a future perspective should present trends continue. It is hoped that the data and analysis presented here will go some way in providing the basis for concerned parties and researchers:

  1. to better understand the present position and future prospects of the Indian community in the Malaysian polity;
  2. to analyse the causes of present problems and sources of future changes;
  3. to formulate long-term policies, plans and programmes to ensure that Malaysian Indians remain a viable community in this multi-ethnic nation.

It is also hoped that the result of the statistics and analyses given here will also deal with the question – or the challenge – posed to Malaysian Indians, that is, to establish whether the problems faced by Malaysian Indians are real or imagined and, if real, whether the sources and causes of these problems are endogenous or exogenous to the community.

 
Posted in English Books, Ethnic Studies