The Chinese Language Movement in Malaysia, 1952-1967: Language, Ethnicity and Nation-Building in a Plural Society
Author: Syed Husin Ali
Format: Paperback, 230 pages
Subject: Ethnic Studies
Buku ini adalah terjemahan daripada buku Ethnic Relations in Malaysia: Harmony and Conflict (New Edition), diterbit pada 2014 oleh Strategic Information and Research Development Centre
Author: Syed Husin Ali
Format: Paperback, 213 pages
Subject: Ethnic Studies
With Malaysia in the throes of sweeping political change, academic turned political activist Dr Syed Husin Ali traces how ethnicity has been manipulated, since Independence, by Malaysian politicians for their own gain to the detriment of the masses.
In articles spanning more than three decades, collected for the first time here, he dissects the origins, fallacies and destructive nature of ethnic politics in Malaysia and examines the issue of class versus ethnicity or race. It is time, he argues, for an end to race or ethnic-based politics. In this new edition, the author has updated the book in terms of facts and events, and included two more articles.
Sememangnya tempoh masa ini merupakan jangka waktu pendidikan Cina dilanda banyak krisis dan dilemma lantaran kesungguhan kerajaan untuk merealisasikan ‘matlamat akhir’ Laporan Razak 1956 yang mencadangkan penggunaan bahasa kebangsaan sebagai bahasa pengantar tunggal di semua institusi pendidikan. Pelaksanaan kerajaan tersebut dianggap sebagai suatu tindakan untuk menyekat perkembangan pendidikan Cina dan menghakis identity sekolah Cina oleh Dong Jiao Zong. Dalam buku ini, permasalahan pencetusan Gerakan Pendidikan Cina diteliti mengikut kerangka konflik etnik, iaitu antara pembentukan bangsa-negara dan pengekalan identity etnik, serta pembalahan persepsi tentang konsep pluralistic dalam bidang pendidikan dan bahasa, iaitu antara pemupukan system persekolahan satu aliran dengan pelbagai aliran.
Dari segi lain, perjuangan Dong Jiao Zong ditinjau dari kerangka perjuangan kumpulan kepentingan yang berjaya mencetuskan gerakan social yang berterusan dan berpengaruh. Hasil penyelidikan menunjukkan bahawa perjuangan Gerakan Pendidikan Cina yang diterajui Dong Jiao Zong ini membawa impak dan pengaruh yang kuat kepada negara amnya dan masyarakat Cina khususnya. Keupanyaan Gerakan Pendidikan Cina mempengaruhi pola pengundian dan pendirian masyarakat Cina menyebabkan parti-parti politik memandang serius tentang tuntutannya dan kerajaan turut menyediakan ruang kompromi kepada perkembangan sekolah Cina.
Education in multiethnic societies is a subject of considerable debates in almost all parts of the world. These debates have invoked strongly-felt positions between competing ethnic groups over a host of issues that have a profound impact on the nation building process.
Apart from deep-seated issues arising from contrasting internal demands over educational rights and equality, emerging issues arising from external influences such as the global spread of English as a result of globalisation have also impacted the nation building process of multiethnic societies.
It is against this context that educational issues in multiethnic societies merit our attention. In the case of Malaysia, discourses over these issues are particularly intense and hotly contested by the different ethnic groups.
This is primarily because of the extreme difficulties in mediating these complicated issues which are impinged by competing socio-cultural, economic and political interests.
This book explores the contested terrains of education in multiethnic Malaysia. It comprises seven chapters that cover three crucial areas of educational provisions and delivery, namely education of ethnic minorities, education and national integration, and educational language policy.
These three crucial areas are often the prime concerns of policy makers in multiethnic societies who have to tread a thin line in resolving these issues which are underpinned by intense coterminous interests and inter-ethnic competition, and having the potential to generate conflicts, contestation and power struggle.
As far as the Malaysian policy makers are concerned, their efforts in resolving these issues have not been overly successful. It is most unfortunate that their policy decisions are at times influenced by competing political and ethnic interests rather than guided by sound theoretical underpinnings that could put the educational development of the country on a stronger platform and a clearer trajectory.
The authors review the background to this segmented system as well as relevant literature on minority education. Both colonial era and post-independence language and education policies have been contested and divisive. While nation-building remains a key concern, education and language policies often reflect majority–minority relations, rather than being focused purely on pedagogic goals—or interethnic socialization and integration.
The Chinese educationists have been a driving force in these developments. But their vision of a complete system of Chinese-medium education, as this book shows, is not fully supported by Chinese parents. Furthermore, the flawed implementation of transitional bilingual education has resulted in, among other problems, linguistic dysfunctionality. A substantial number of Chinese students have such a poor grasp of Malay that they drop out of secondary school, while overall Chinese-language competency also deteriorates after primary school.
This objective, scholarly analysis should be read by educationists, scholars, journalists, policy-makers, and parents who seek to learn more about the history, context, and longer-term implications of the education of the Chinese in multiethnic Malaysia.
What is the truth about the status of the real Malaysian Indian community today? Is it true that despite its considerable sacrifice and contribution to the development of the country, it has become a marginalised community?
The aim of this publication are to provide a perspective on the present reality of the Malaysian Indians community, and to postulate a future perspective should present trends continue. It is hoped that the data and analysis presented here will go some way in providing the basis for concerned parties and researchers:
- to better understand the present position and future prospects of the Indian community in the Malaysian polity;
- to analyse the causes of present problems and sources of future changes;
- to formulate long-term policies, plans and programmes to ensure that Malaysian Indians remain a viable community in this multi-ethnic nation.
It is also hoped that the result of the statistics and analyses given here will also deal with the question – or the challenge – posed to Malaysian Indians, that is, to establish whether the problems faced by Malaysian Indians are real or imagined and, if real, whether the sources and causes of these problems are endogenous or exogenous to the community.